Viscous Upwind ALgorithm for Complex Flow ANalysis
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Release Version 6.2.0
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An enormous debt is owed to Dr. Anna Creese, formerly of Taitech, Inc. who was responsible for the initial version of the VULCAN User Manual. Without her assistance and patience, this document would not exist. Funding for VULCAN development has been provided over the years by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Air Force Research Laboratory, Taitech, Inc., and the Office of the Secretary of Defense. The development of VULCAN is primarily supported by researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center. However, efforts outside of NASA from universities, private industry, and other government labs have historically and continue to be an integral part of VULCAN's development. The present release was funded through the Hypersonics Project of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program, and personnel from both the Hypersonic Airbreathing Propulsion Branch and Computational Aerosciences Branch have made significant contributions the the present release.
Please address editorial comments or suggestions to: Robert.A.Baurle@nasa.gov
Viscous Upwind aLgorithm for Complex Flow Analysis
VULCAN offers Computational Fluid Dynamics software (available for serial and parallel computational platforms) for turbulent reacting and non-reacting flows at conditions ranging from subsonic to hypersonic speeds. The computational cost of propulsion flow analysis is reduced through the use of special turbulent wall treatments, multi-grid methods for elliptic and space marching schemes, and conditioning of the governing equations to reduce numerical stiffness. Physical modeling capabilities are improved through the inclusion of models for compressibility, Reynolds stress anisotropies, turbulent diffusivity, finite rate chemistry, and turbulence/chemistry interaction effects. VULCAN can simulate two-dimensional, axi-symmetric, or three-dimensional, problems on structured multi-block grid systems. A variety of PDE-based turbulence models are available (including explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models) in VULCAN. Hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Simulation / Large Eddy Simulation capabilities (including robust low-dissipation numerics) are also present. VULCAN offers significant geometric flexibility; boundary conditions can be imposed on any boundary or boundary subset, and the code has C(0) continuous as well as non-C(0) continuous block-to-block interface capabilities. VULCAN also offers thermodynamic and kinetic model flexibility. The working fluid can be simulated as a calorically perfect single component gas, or as a mixture of thermally perfect gases (with or without chemical reactions).
Version 6.X Update Release Notes
Current Update Related Notes
Removed the requirement of using quotation marks to denote character strings in the input file. The inclusion of the accompanying numeric value is also no longer required for input options that do not utilize this numeric value. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input graphical user interface. The VULCAN input GUI can only read/write the old input format.
Added arc-length weighting factors for the interpolation of cell center data to the cell nodes for the post-processed flow files (plot3d.f and plot3d.q).
Altered how the STOP_VULCAN commands are handled. An iteration number (elliptic regions) or plane number (parabolic regions) can now be placed into any of the STOP_VULCAN files to define the precise moment when the VULCAN simulation should be stopped. If no iteration number (elliptic regions) is present, then the simulation will stop within 5-15 iterations of the current iteration (this iteration offset is an attempt to handle any system lags that may be present with network mounted disks). If no plane number (parabolic regions) is present, then the simulation will stop once the current plane solution has been output to disk.
Added an option to enable the post-processing step to complete when a STOP_VULCAN_PP file is present.
Fixed a bug that set too high of a turbulence kinetic energy value for the 1st cell away from a solid surface for surfaces treated with the Wilcox wall matching procedure.
Added logic to force the correct asymptotic behavior of the turbulence kinetic energy and the turbulence frequency (omega) for surface cell y+ values that are below the log layer portion of the boundary layer.
Added the output of reference stagnation conditions and dynamic pressure.
Fixed problem associated with the reference turbulence kinetic energy being added to the reference total energy for laminar or inviscid flows when the reference turbulence intensity input line (TURBULENCE INTENSITY) was specified in the input file for laminar or inviscid flows.
Fixed a bug that prevented the setting of cell volumes and metric derivatives in the ghost cells adjacent to non-C(0) block interfaces.
Added an option to specify the tolerance used when checking the C(0) connectivity at block interfaces (see C(0) TOLERANCE. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Forced an explict close of all I/O files utilized by the code to avoid problems with some FORTRAN compilers.
Added flush calls to flush the I/O buffer just after all write statements for platforms that support this feature.
Added the output of a temporal history of integrated forces and moments and other optional integral properties for elliptical regions (useful for ascertaining convergence).
Added a specified mass flow rate outflow boundary condition (see SUBMDOTO). NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Added an option to initialize a boundary layer thickness for no-slip surfaces (see INITIAL BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS.
Added an option to initialize the velocity to zero for specified grid blocks (see BLOCKS TO INIT. VEL. TO ZERO.
Altered the specification of the reference quantities so that the Mach number and any two thermodynamic properties (pressure, temperature, or density) can be specified. For calorically perfect flows, the ratio of specific heats and the gas constant are also required. The specification order of these properties is no longer of any consequence. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Removed the requirement for specifying the reference length (REFERENCE LENGTH) in the reference conditions section of the input file. Any grid scaling should now be performed via the input option GRID SCALE FACTOR, which is what VULCAN has always enforced internally. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Added an option to specify a reference length (INTEGRATION REF. LENGTH) and a reference area (INTEGRATION REF. AREA) to convert the integrated forces and moments to force and moment coefficients.
Added an option to specify X (INTEGRATION X SCALE FACTOR), Y (INTEGRATION Y SCALE FACTOR), and Z (INTEGRATION Z SCALE FACTOR) scaling factors for the force and moment coefficient output.
Added the option to include (INCLUDE SLIP WALLS) or exclude (EXCLUDE SLIP WALLS) the contributions of slip walls to the force and moment data. The default treatment is to include the slip wall contributions.
Added the option to track total pressure losses (COMPUTE TOTAL PRESSURE LOSS).
Added the option to output combustion efficiency (COMPUTE COMBUSTION EFFICIENCY). This option will output the mixing efficiency if reactions are not enabled.
Added the option to output the fuel penetration height (COMPUTE FUEL PENETRATION HEIGHT). This option is not available when reactions are enabled.
Added the option to specify the direction cosines (see DIRECTION COSINE METHOD) in lieu of specifying angle of attack and/or angle of yaw. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Altered the behavior of the RESTART OUT input option to interpret the associated number as the iteration interval for outputting the restart files. The obsolete input option RESTART OUT INTERVAL (if present) will overwrite any iteration interval specified on this line for backwards compatability. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Removed the requirement for specifying the number of region configuration sections (REGION CONFIG.). The number of region configuration sections is now determined based on the region mapping specified in the block configuration section (see BLOCK CONFIG.) of the input file. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Removed the specification of the solver type from the block configuration section (BLOCK CONFIG.) of the input file, and placed it in the region control section. This change was made since the solver type is really a region-specific parameter rather than a block-specific parameter. The old method is still admissible for backward compatibility. NOTE: The old method is required if the VULCAN input GUI is to be used.
Added an alternative method for specifying the physical boundary conditions. This new capability allows one to define boundary condition groupings (see BCGROUPS) based on the keyword specified by the BC NAME section of the boundary condition input. If this option is activated, then the integrated loads are output on a per group basis rather than a per boundary condition basis. This approach greatly simplifies the specification of the boundary conditions and allows integrated loads to be combined for various components. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Added an option for combining boundary condition groups (see BCOBJECTS) for further control over the integrated load output. This capability will combine specified boundary condition groups (see BCGROUPS) and sum their integrated loads. This output is in addition to the load output for each individual group. This option provides additional flexibility for categorizing how the integrated loads should be displayed. NOTE: This modification has not yet been implemented into the VULCAN input GUI.
Added an Incomplete LU (ILU) scheme for calorically perfect gas simulations.
Updated the Menter turbulence models to their most recent formulations.
Altered the Wilcox compressibility model formulation to match that given in Ref. AIAA-91-1785.
Fixed problem with the mapping of blocks to be initialized via the INIT. VEL. TO ZERO option.
Fixed problem with the STOP_VULCAN logic that sometimes prevented the simulations from stopping.
Fixed various problems associated with the Jacobian matrices near boundaries for the ILU scheme.
Fixed problem that utilized an incomplete streamwise pressure gradient for the wall matching boundary conditions.
Fixed problem that caused inconsistent ghost cell values along wall matching surfaces for thermally perfect flows.
Removed the addition of the resolved turbulence kinetic energy to the modeled "k" value in the time-averaged restart files. This change was required to allow post-processing of the time-averaged turbulence model variables based only on the modeled value of the turbulence kinetic energy.
Removed the realizability enforcement placed on the normal Reynolds stress components.
Fixed a pathological problem that forced VULCAN to terminate when one has more grid blocks than processors.
Fixed problem that prevented the velocity alignment for AFIXED and AREFFIX boundary conditions.
Fixed problem when attempting to read unsteady data (that won't exist) in space-marching restart files.
Added checks to ensure file name lengths are within allowable bounds.
Fixed problem with spark plug ignition regions for multiblock domains.
Fixed problem with intermediate restart file output for multigrid simulations.
Fixed problem with the setting of the no-slip singular boundary condition when using BCGROUPS.
Removed logic that swapped y and z velocity components in profile files when j and k are swapped.
Fixed problem with the definition of the Peclet number for turbulent flows (only affects LDFSSB and ROE schemes with positive convective eigen-value coefficients).
Fixed problem with I/O of unsteady restart file data.
Fixed array bounds problem that affected some parabolic applications.
Reduced work array storage and improved memory requirement estimates.
Added checks to BC/CUT/PCH windows to ensure that they are coarsenable to the same level as requested in the input file.
Fixed problem with automated sweep direction algorithm when the ILU scheme is used in conjunction with DELTAT time-stepping.
Extended the planar relaxation algorithm (ILU scheme) to thermally perfect flows.
Added a full 3-D ILU algorithm that does not perform planar sweeps (see the ILU relaxation and Jacobian update control section).
Added a bleed specification treatment (bleed in or out) based on source/sink terms (see the BC Groups option flags).
Reworked the ignition source treament that is based on a specified energy source to function as a true source term rather than a simple correction to the conserved variable update.
The Computer Automated Reduced Mechanism (CARM) and In-Situ Automated Tabulation (ISAT) capabilities are now publicly available features.
Consolidated all the pre-processing routines (GRDSZR.F, PREPTCH.F, PREPRC.F, etc. into a single pre-processing routine (PREPRC).
Changed the Smagorinsky model keyword to SMAGORINSKY and added the ability to specify the Smagorinsky constant (SMAGORINSKY CONSTANT) for the SGS viscosity.
Replaced the use of the Menter blending function for hybrid RAS/LES with a blending function based on the Taylor microscale. This blending introduced a new input parameter (HYBRID-LES ALPHA) to control where the blend from RAS to LES takes place.
Added logic to switch to a solve-to-wall (STW) treatment on coarse grids if a block in a region with wall-matching-function (WMF) has turbulence disabled.
Restart files are no longer written out at the start of a simulation if only one region is present.
Removed the enforcement of zero convective flux through symmetry and slip boundaries which corrected a non-physical behavior noticed near stagnation regions adjacent to these types of boundaries.
Fixed problem with reading space-marching restart files with unequal streamwise planes.
Fixed problem with the CFL schedule when restarting multi-region cases.
Increased the dimension of the bcgrpp array to prevent storage issues for 2-D laminar cases.
Fixed problem with the setting of the qbc array for some boundary conditions when the boundary condition groups format is invoked.
Fixed miscellaneous issues with the advanced slip wall boundary condition.
Fixed inconsistency with the manner in which the turbulence kinetic energy was accounted for in the total energy for the SUBIN boundary condition.
Fixed issue with the setting of corner and edge values of the volf and sjkif arrays prior to calling the specific boundary condition subroutines.
Fixed problem with the parsing of the flux scheme line of the region control section when optional parameters are present.
Fixed problem with ISAT that prevented the Jacobian from being globally stored.
Fixed issue with the output of the Smagorinski viscosity time history.
Added an argument to the PERIODIC BODY FORCE input specification to denote the desired direction to apply the body force in.
Changed logic to activate the viscous treatment in the k-direction for axisymmetric flows to the maximum level specified for any coordinate direction.
Changed logic when using single interval thermodynamic curve fits to create a low-temperature fit that freezes the specific heat value at the minimum temperature given by the database file (this behavior is consistent with how mult-interval thermodynamic fits are handled).
Redefined the reference conductivity to use the true reference value and redefined the reference Prandtl number accordingly.
Added REPORT LINEAR SOLVER HISTORY to specify that the convergence history of the linearization error for the ILU scheme is to be output.
Added LINEAR SOLVER CONVERGENCE CRITERIA to specify the convergence criteria for the linearization error of the variable update for the ILU scheme.
Enhanced implicit boundary condition treatment for better ILU scheme performance.
Fixed small inconsistency associated with the production term for the Menter SST model.
Transformed the "omega" definition (by a factor of 0.09) for the Menter turbulence models to match that used by the Wilcox models. NOTE: This modification makes restart and/or profile files created from previous versions of VULCAN incompatible with the current release.
Added the Wilcox 2006 k-w model WILCOX-2006. The Wilcox 1998 k-w model is now selected via the keyword WILCOX-1998.
Added the keyword DISABLE WILCOX POPE TERM to disable the term associated with the radial jet / round jet anomaly.
Added the keyword ENABLE WILCOX LOW RE TERMS to enable the low Reynolds number additions to the Wilcox k-w model(s).
The following turbulence model specifications are now obsolete:
K-OMEGA (Replaced with WILCOX-1998 in conjunction with DISABLE WILCOX POPE TERM)
K-OMEGA_POPE (Replaced with WILCOX-1998)
LOW RE K-OMEGA (Replaced with WILCOX-1998 or WILCOX-2006 in conjunction with ENABLE WILCOX LOW RE TERMS)
G.S. ALG. REY. STRESS (Replaced with RG-EASM-KO-2003)
Fixed several issues associated with the HLLC flux scheme.
Added an option to force a restart file output "on-the-fly" when a FORCE_VULCAN_WR file is present. If an iteration number is present in the file, then the restart files are output at that iteration. If no iteration number is present, then the restart files will be written within 5-15 iterations of the current iteration (this iteration offset is an attempt to handle any system lags that may be present with network mounted disks).
Added the capability to handle an arbitrary number of ghost cell layers.
Added a family of schemes based on the Piecewise Parabolic Method of Collela and Woodward (J. Comp. Phys., 1984) PPM.
Added the keyword DUCROS LIMIT to define a lower limit for the Ducros et al. switch option available for the PPM family of schemes.
Enhanced the source-based bleed specification treatment (bleed in or out) through the inclusion of a Doerffer-Bohning model option for flow through a porous plate (see the BC Groups option flags and Bleed Specification).
Added the ability to introduce resolved turbulent content into a profile boundary condition specification using a recycling/rescaling procedure for boundary layer flows (see the RECYCLING/RESCALING DATA and RECYCLING/RESCALING PROCESS).
Added ONED specification as a geometry type which disables all but the streamwise (I-direction) flux contributions.
Renamed many of the inputs for VULCAN and added aliases for the old naming convention to ensure backward-compatability:
'STATIC TEMPERATURE' replaced 'STATIC TEMP.'
'TOTAL TEMPERATURE' replaced 'TOTAL TEMP.'
'STATIC PRESSURE' replaced 'STATIC PRESS.'
'TOTAL PRESSURE' replaced 'TOTAL PRESS.'
'STATIC DENSITY' replaced 'STATIC RHO'
'TOTAL DENSITY' replaced 'TOTAL RHO'
'PITOT PRESSURE' replaced 'PITOT PRESS.'
'TOTAL ENTHALPY' replaced 'TOTAL ENTH.'
'SENSIBLE ENTHALPY' replaced 'SENSIBLE ENTH.'
'SPECIFIC HEAT RATIO' replaced 'GAMMA'
'UNIVERSAL GAS CONSTANT' replaced 'UNIV. GAS CONST.'
'PRANDTL NO.' replaced 'LAM. PRANDTL NO.'
'SCHMIDT NO.' replaced 'LAM. SCHMIDT NO.'
'SPECIES DIFFUSION MODEL' replaced 'SPEC. DIFF. MODEL'
'TKE' replaced 'TURB. K.E.'
'OMEGA' replaced 'TURB. DIS.'
'EPSILON' replaced 'TURB. DIS.'
'SPALART' replaced 'TURB. DIS.'
'VISCOSITY' replaced 'LAM. VIS.'
'EDDY VISCOSITY RATIO' replaced 'EDDY VIS. RATIO'
'CMU*' replaced 'CMUSTAR'
'UPDATE TIME AVERAGE' replaced 'OUTPUT TIME AVERAGE'
'TURBULENCE MODEL' replaced 'TURB. MODEL'
'TURBULENCE INTENSITY' replaced 'TURB. INTENSITY'
'EDDY VISCOSITY RATIO' replaced 'TURB. VISC. RATIO'
'BOUSSINESQ REYNOLDS STRESS' replaced 'BOUSSINESQ REY. STRESS'
'NO 2/3 RHOK IN REYNOLDS STRESS' replaced 'NO 2/3 RHOK IN REY. STRESS'
'TURBULENCE CHEMISTRY MODEL' replaced 'TURB. CHEM. MODEL'
'HYBRID ADVECTION LOWER LIMIT' replaced 'DUCROS LIMIT'
'RE-INITIALIZE BLOCKS' replaced 'RE-INIT. BLOCKS'
'BLOCKS TO INIT. VEL. TO ZERO' replaced 'INIT. BLOCKS TO ZERO VEL.'
'INITIAL BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS' replaced 'INIT. BOUNDARY LAYER THICKNESS'
'STOICHIOMETRIC F/O MASS RATIO' replaced 'STOICHIOMETRIC FUEL TO OXIDIZER MASS RATIO'
'RESIDUAL SMOOTHING TYPE' replaced 'RESMTYP'
'BLOCK CONFIGURATION' replaced 'BLOCK CONFIG.'
All symmetry boundary conditions have been modified so that the use of these boundary conditions will precisely reproduce what would occur if the grid was mirrored. This involved a modification to how metric derivatives are defined adjacent to symmetry boundaries. This modification now requires that that symmetry conditions only be applied to bounaries that are planar. If the boundary is not planar, then a slip wall condition must be used instead of symmetry.
Added SYMMETRY TOLERANCE to specify the maximum allowable angle deviation tolerance (in degrees) for checks performed by the solver to ensure that symmetry boundary conditions are only applied on planar surfaces.
Modified the inviscid flux routines to guarantee no flow passes through slip wall boundaries. This involved a modification that explicitly zeroes out the convective flux returned by the inviscid flux evaluation routines.
Modified the inviscid flux routines to guarantee specified flux conditions are truly satisfied. This involved a modification that throws out the convective flux returned by the inviscid flux evaluation routines, and replaces it with the desired specified flux.
Added COPY_GRID_IN_Z(K) to allow the creation of a spanwise 3-D grid from a 2-D grid by creating N new planes in the K-direction. The spacing of the newly created spanwise cells is specified by the keyword GRID_DELTA_Z.
Added GRID_DELTA_Z to specify the spanwize (Z) spacing of each row of Z=constant cells in the 3-D grid grid created from a 2-D grid using the COPY_GRID_IN_Z(K) input option.
Added ENABLE CELL SKEW CFL LIMIT to locally reduce the CFL number in cells that are highly skewed for simulations that solve the full Navier-Stokes equations using the ILU scheme.
Added an improved full Navier-Stokes treatement (NEW FNS GRADIENT) that constructs the gradients based on an auxillary cell with corners defined by the cell face end points and the adjacent cell centers. This method offers a compact stencil with minimal interpolation required. The original treatment (which is still the default) can be explictly specified by the keyword OLD FNS GRADIENT.
Added the ability to perform a grid topology analysis (ENABLE TOPOLOGY ANALYSIS) to detect topological grid singularities (e.g. in 2-D problems where 3 or 5 blocks come together at a point as opposed to simply connected blocks where 4 blocks come together at a point). If the topology analysis is successful, then a special interpolation is invoked at nodes/cells adjacent to each topological singularity that ensures proper telescoping of full Navier-Stokes flux contributions (if the NEW FNS GRADIENT approach is used) and smooth continuous contours when plotting post-processed variables in the vicinity of the singularities.
Added TURB. PROD. USING VORTICITY to utilize a turbulent production term based on the vorticity magnitude instead of the traditional approach that utilizes the strain rate. The strain rate approach is the default, but can be explicitly specified via the option TURB. PROD. USING STRAIN.
Fixed issue that prevented the enforcement of realizability on the normal stress components when evaluating the production terms of the omega (or epsilon) equations.
Fixed problem with the wall-normal contribution to the streamwise pressure gradient used for the wall-matching procedure.
Fixed ill-conceived limits placed on the clipping of the surface temperature for wall matching conditions that utilize the coupled 1-D surface heat flux model.
Fixed a bug found in the low Reynolds number omega model implementation of the Wilcox 2006 turbulence model.
Added the power law as a viscosity model for calorically perfect gases. This option is enabled by setting the VISCOSITY MODEL to 0. The reference viscosity, temperature, and exponent for the power law are defined by the input strings:
POWER LAW MU0 #.#
POWER LAW T0 #.#
POWER LAW EXPONENT #.#
Added combined Sutherland plus linear law as a viscosity model for calorically perfect gases. The linear law is activated at temperatures below the Sutherland temperature. This option is enabled by setting the VISCOSITY MODEL to 2. The reference viscosity, temperature, and Sutherland temperature for the this model are defined in the same manner as that for a pure Sutherland law:
SUTHERLAND LAW MU0 #.#
SUTHERLAND LAW T0 #.#
SUTHERLAND LAW S0 #.#
Added the McBride polynomial as a viscosity model for calorically perfect gases. This option is enabled by setting the VISCOSITY MODEL to 3. This model is enabled through the keyword MCBRIDE POLYNOMIAL N.0, where N denotes the number of temperature intervals to utilize. Two lines of data are required for each temperature interval. The first line contains the minimum and maximum temperature for the interval, and the second line contains the 4 coefficients (a,b,c,d) that define the polynomial for the interval, e.g.
MCBRIDE POLYNOMIAL 1.0
a b c d
The McBride polynomial option is also available for multi-component gases, where a McBride database is parsed to obtaion the above information rather than specifying them in the input file.
Added the input SPECIES VISCOSITY MODEL to define the viscosity law for each species of a multi-component mixture. The viscosity law options available for multi-component mixtures are the Sutherland law and McBride polynomial.
Added the input SPECIES CONDUCTIVITY MODEL to define the conductivity law for each species of a multi-component mixture. The conductivity law options available for multi-component mixtures are constant Prandtl number, Sutherland law, and McBride polynomial.
Added the input MIXTURE VISCOSITY MODEL to define the viscosity mixture law for multi-component gas. The only mixture law option currently available is the Wilke law.
Added the input MIXTURE CONDUCTIVITY MODEL to define the conductivity mixture law for multi-component gas. The only mixture law options currently available are constant Prandtl number and the Wassilej law.
Added the ability to utilize McBride CEA format thermodynamic database files, which is a well-established standardized database format for polynomial fits of species thermodynamic properties. This database is more flexible than the VULCAN format databases. The specification of the CEA thermodynamic database format is activated by setting SPECIES THERMODYNAMIC DATA FORMAT to 1. A VULCAN format database is specified by setting this option to 0 (or omitting the line altogether).
Added the ability to utilize McBride CEA format transport database files, which is a well-established standardized database format for polynomial fits of species transport properties. The functional form offered by this databse is valid over a much larger temperature range than the Sutherland law transport definitions offered by a VULCAN format gas database. The specification of the CEA transport database format is activated by setting SPECIES TRANSPORT DATA FORMAT to 1. NOTE that if this input is used in conjunction with a VULCAN format gas model database, the CEA polynomials will be utilized and the Sutherland law data present in the VULCAN database will be ignored.
Added INVISCID JACOBIAN to allow control of the linearization of the inviscid flux Jacobian. The default (a value of 0) linearizes the system based on a 1st-order Roe scheme. A value of 1 will utilize a a 1st-order linearization that is consistent with the inviscid flux scheme chosen (either ROE, LDFSS, or HLLC).
Added the output of the mass flow rate error to the iteration statistics for elliptic problems.
Added SUBIN BC RELAX ITS N.# to allow a gradual relaxation of the desired subsonic flow specification given by all SUBIN boundary conditions towards the current flow conditions. The value entered for N is the number of iterations to impose the relaxation. This option is useful for grid topologies where it is difficult to invoke the 1-D nozzle initialization feature, and will automatically be disabled for boundary conditions that have this initialization feature enabled.
Added LWBLOW to impose a boundary condition for surface effusion. This boundary condition specifies the mass flux, temperature, and composition of the flow effusing into the domain, while the velocity components are extrapolated. A version of this boundary condition that utilizes profile files is specified by the keyword LWBLOWP.
Added THIVET REALIZABILITY to enforce the Reynolds stress limiter of Thivet. The stress limiter is the same functional form as that imposed by the DURBIN REALIZABILITY option (it is basically a subset of the realizability approach of Durbin).
Added three new Runge-Kutta scheme options:
TVD_3_STAGE_RK (3-stage 3rd order scheme)
HEUN_3_STAGE_RK (3-stage 3rd order scheme)
CAR-KEN_5_STAGE_RK (5-stage 4th order scheme)
Fixed problem with the coarsening of profile files for numerical schemes that require more than 2 ghost cells.
Changed default settings for the non-C0 patch coefficient generation code based on experience gained with this utility.
Fixed issue with the buffer space requirements when the buffered send/recv message passing mode is chosen. An intermittent issue with the determination of the required buffer space when patches are present was also found and corrected.
Added more rigorous checks to ensure that block dimensions are adequately sized for all grid levels. There are subtle issues with some options in VULCAN that require at least as many internal cells as ghost cells in each coordinate direction for each grid level. Any existing VULCAN cases that do not satisfy this constraint will no longer be allowed to execute.
Fixed several issues associated with the SUBMDOTI boundary condition.
Added the output of the reference total enthalpy to the reference condition output and added the units associated with each reference condition value.
Added both 4th and 6th order versions of the WENO schemes developed by Carpenter and Fisher.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION SCHEME TYPE to specify the class of hybrid low dissipation numerical schemes desired.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION CD ORDER to specify the order of accuracy of the low dissipation flux scheme utilized by the hybrid advection scheme.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION SENSOR TYPE to specify the discontinuity (e.g. shock) sensor used to switch between dissipative and non-dissipative formulations for the hybrid advection scheme.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION SENSOR LOWER LIMIT to specify the minimum allowable value for the hybrid advection sensor switch (enforces the minimum percentage of dissipative flux contribution to always retain). This option replaces the DUCROS LIMIT input option introduced in the previous release.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION SENSOR UPPER LIMIT to specify the maximum allowable value for the hybrid advection sensor switch (enforces the minimum percentage of non-dissipative flux contribution to always retain).
Added HYBRID ADVECTION VORTICITY SCALE COEFFICIENT to provide control over the Larsson sensor coefficient associated with the vorticity.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION BACKGROUND SCALE COEFFICIENT to provide control over the Larsson sensor coefficient that sets the minimum background level of pseudo-vorticity.
Added HYBRID ADVECTION SENSOR WITH RAS/LES EFFECTS to incorporate the effects of the hybrid RAS/LES sensor into the hybrid advection scheme sensor. This option will always enforce the dissipative flux in regions treated as pure RAS.
An AIAA paper has been written that documents many of the new hybrid numerical scheme options, and this document will be uploaded on the VULCAN web site when the paper release approval process has completed. The paper titled is "Low-Dissipation Advection Schemes Designed for Large Eddy Simulations of Hypersonic Propulsion Systems" and it will be presented at the 48th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit and 10th International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference.
Added options to output the species production rates (PRODUCTION RATE) and/or the heat release rate due to finite rate reactions (HEAT RELEASE).
Changed the format for the list of function variables when the PLOT FUNCTION option is utilized. Each plot variable must now be specified on separate lines in the input file.
Fixed problem with the setting of the ghost cell turbulence kinetic energy when post-processing SUBIN boundarie.
Forced the inclusion (in a consistent manner) of the turbulence kinetic energy when computing the Pitot pressure for plotting purposes.
Fixed problems with misplaced ifdef logic when the post-processor was installed on serial machines.
Switched the successive iteration algorithm to a secant method when computing Pitot pressure for non calorically perfect flows.
Fixed problem with the plot3d file merger for 64-bit unformatted data.
Fixed non-dimensionalization problem when plotting total temperature (this affected the calculation of total density and pressure as well).
Added ability to output post-processed data in PLOT3D planar format PLOT PLANAR.
Fixed storage issue with post-processing Pitot pressure.
Added option to output the Thivet realizability limiter function (THIVET FUNCTION).
Added option to output the hybrid advection scheme sensor (SHOCK SENSOR).
Fixed issue with the reporting of errors when parsing the function variable list when more than one error was found.
Fixed a dimensionalization error issue associated with the calculation of Pitot pressure when post-processing.
Changed the plot variable names in the plot3d.nam file to include the units associated with each variable.
Changed the output of the shear force to be based on the velocity tangent to the surface rather than simply using the velocity magnitude.
Added option to access (plot) the VULCAN integrated loads time history file, allowing graphical "on-the-fly" monitoring of the solution status.
Fixed various platform-dependent problems associated with the plotting of integrated loads files.
Added the ability to refresh the plot of the force and moment time history file in real-time with Tecplot.
Fixed issues with the plotting of the force and moment time history file.
Added support for the FORCE_VULCAN_WR capability.
Some progress has been made with regards to making all of the available VULCAN inputs accessible via the GUI. However, the following general input section options have not yet been implemented (they have to be manually added into the input file):
UPDATE TIME AVERAGE
UPDATE TIME HISTORY
F&M AVERAGING INTERVAL
DIRECTION COSINE METHOD
THIN LAYER SOURCE TERMS
HYBRID-LES (and all inputs related to this section)
TURBULENCE CHEMISTRY MODEL (and all inputs related to this section)
CFLSTAR, RESMTYP, RESMPHI, RESMPSI (residual smoothing controls)
TIME HISTORY I/O
Updated gas and reaction database file names and modified how gas species-specific database comments are handled to reflect changes made that allow for additional lines of reference information.
Added support for the new grid splitter utility.
Added support for the new versions of the grid boundary condition translator utilities.
Fixed issue when reading cut conditions without quotes.
Added options to the load balancing frame.
Fixed issue with the Sutherland law coefficient output statements.
Added support for 64-bit platform options that utilize the Portland Group or PathScale compilers.
Added support for the freely available G95 F90 compiler. This compiler is unable to handle some of the non-standard FORTRAN that is present in the non-C0 patcher utility, so the installation of the patcher utility is skipped when this compiler is chosen. Note that patch files (if created from a VULCAN install with a different F90 compiler) can be copied to and used on the machine that has VULCAN installed with G95.
Added C-preprocessing commands that enable a call to "flush" which flushes the I/O buffer on platforms that allow this non-standard FORTRAN call. This option is currently enabled when any Lahey or Portland Group FORTRAN compiler is selected.
Replaced the .vulcantcsh (.vulcancsh) files with configuration files vulcan_config and vulcan_config_gui in an attempt to simplify the installation process. Modification of the vulcan_config file is all that is required to properly install VULCAN for command line execution. The vulcan_config_gui contains the remaining steps required to utilize the VULCAN graphical user interfaces.
Added platforms that utilize the Sun X86 FORTRAN compiler.
Fixed problem that prevented the use of compile optimizations for the AMD and 64-bit PGC platforms.
Removed specific path from the C-preprocessor flag in mkvulcan.tcsh.
Fixed typographical error that prevented installation on some PGC platforms.
Added GNU Fortran (GFORTRAN) as a supported platform.
Updated all of the compiler options for supported platforms and removed obsolete platforms.
Removed specific chip related compiler flags from the default compilation mode (these values now should be manually set inside of mkvulcan.tcsh if compiling on a machine that is different than what will be used for executing the code).
Added compiler options for debug mode to all supported platforms.
Added support for the new grid split and patch utility programs.
Reworked the pprep_vulcan.tcsh script to handle the new patch utility.
Reworked the pprep_vulcan.tcsh script as required for the consolidation of the pre-processors.
Added logic to vulcan.tcsh to recognize both the old splitter recombination utility and the new one.
Added a flag to the vulcan execution script to explicitly state whether to recombine files that were split for load balancing.
Updated all of the compiler options for supported platforms.
Fixed problem with the modules directory not being cleaned on re-installs.
Added an alias (patcher) for easy interactive execution of the patcher utility.
Added the an alias (gpro2nmf) for the Gridpro translator utility that converts a GridPro connectivity file to a V2K neutral map file.
Added various aliases to utilities and scripts associated with the newly added vtls Tecplot post-processing tool suite.
Updated gas models and provided references for gas property sources.
Renamed the gas_mod.Larc_1 database file to gas_mod.Lewis_1.
Renamed some reaction models to conform with standard naming convention.
Removed erroneous carriage return in the header of the Dryer and Westbrook H2 mechanisms.
Added generic gas variables (Gas1, Gas2, etc.) for species tracking. The properties of these tracking variables are set to calorically perfect air by default.
Added the CEA thermodynamic and transport databases (therm_cea.inp and trans_cea.inp).
Converted all utility codes to FORTRAN 90 free format form.
Added two new one-dimensionalization approaches to perf_plot3d. The first new approach is a conserved flux option that accounts for flow distortion via the Langley flow distortion methodology. The second is a method introduced by Professor David Riggins (which he refers to as the thermodynamic state method) that enforces conservation of mass, energy, and entropy.
Added an option to perf_plot3d that allows flowfield data to be read in from a TECPLOT format data file.
Added an option to read in integrated flux quantities generated from FIELDVIEW for use with the conserved flux options of perf_plot3d. This option is particularly useful for block topologies that are too complicated (or impossible) to merge from within the perf_plot3d utility.
Changed the alignment option of perf_plot3d that would align the 1-D direction with the momentum vector to one that is aligned with the velocity vector.
Added a new utility code to translate grid/boundary condition files generated from GridPro to a VULCAN format.
Added a new utility code to modify (split) grid blocks for efficient parallel processing. This utility splits the grid blocks of a PLOT3D format grid file based on the number of processors desired and a given load balance tolerance. The utility also performs the required splitting operations for the input file associated with the un-split grid and any restart files that may be present.
Fixed various installation issues with the utility that splits grid zones for efficient parallel processing. The problem that prevented splitting (and merging) of VULCAN restart files was also corrected.
Added new capabilities to ls_fit.
Fixed character string output problem for patch conditions in gridgent, gridprot, and v2knmapt.
Added new capabilities to gridprot to improve how VULCAN interfaces with GridPro.
Added option in grid_plot3d to display information about the grid (number of point/cells/sequence levels, etc.). Also added information related to the level of parallelism that is achievable.
Generalized the frozen flow calculation procedure used by perf_plot3d (reducing the run-time substantially).
Generalized the frozen flow calculation procedure used by perf_plot3d (reducing the run-time substantially).
Added a new fully F90 compliant non-C(0) patch utility to replace the existing non-compliant patcher.
Added a new fully F90 compliant grid splitting utility ( see SGLD User Guide) to replace the existing C-based splitter.
Added the AFRL separated flow average methodology to perf_plot3d.
Redefined the streamwise vorticity to be aligned with the desired 1-D flow direction (rather than assuming it to be aligned with the X-direction) in perf_plot3d.
Added Fieldview scripts and formula files to aid with the output of fluxes when the Fieldview flux option is invoked (perf_plot3d).
Added a grid scaling factor to allow grids in non-MKS units to be used by perf_plot3d.
Added a prompt for the maximum processors to consider for output of load balance statistics in grid_plot3d.
Moved the check for whether the problem is 3-D outside of any particular task option in grid_plot3d.
Fixed problem with the creation 3-D grids from 2-D grids in grid_plot3d.
Added the ability utilize either the old format for boundary conditions or the new format based on BC groupings in gridgent and gridprot.
Removed the requirement that quotes be used on input strings in the boundary condition translator utilities (gridgent, gridprot, v2knmapt).
Reworked logic of v2knmapt to more closely resemble that used by the other tranlator utilities.
Developed two new glyph files for Gridgen to simplify the setting of boundary conditions for VULCAN. The vulcan_bcs.glf file defines all of the VULCAN specific boundary conditions, and the vulcan_bcgrps.glf file defines families of boundary condition classes for use when the specific boundary conditions to be applied have not yet been decided upon.
Developed two new ptymap files for Gridpro to simplify the setting of boundary conditions for VULCAN. The ptymap.vulcan_bcs file defines all of the VULCAN specific boundary conditions, and the ptymap.vulcan_bcgrps file defines families of boundary condition classes for use when the specific boundary conditions to be applied have not yet been decided upon.
Developed a tog file (vulcan_bcs.tog) for V2K to simplify the setting of VULCAN specific boundary conditions.
Added the ability to extract a desired grid level in vulcan_rest.
Added the ability to extract residual norms for restart file modifications that will not fundamentally alter the convergence history (vulcan_rest).
Increased the dimension of the bcgrpp array to prevent storage issues for 2-D laminar cases (vulcan_rest).
Modified the coarsening and refining procedures to properly handle the coarsening/refining in situations where transport property values have been flagged as a negative number (vulcan_rest).
Fixed issue with the I/O of the restart header file in vulcan_rest.
Fixed memory allocation issue with coarsening/refining or converting between 2-D and 3-D in vulcan_rest.
Fixed issues with the output of boundary layer properties in vulcan_prof.
Added planar PLOT3D output logic to the PLOT3D merge utility.
Fixed SGLD issues associated with auxiliary lines required for PROFILE file usage when the boundary condition grouping format is used.
Adjusted tree search logic to speed-up SGLD execution.
Added planar PLOT3D output logic to SGLD when merging PLOT3D data files.
Made changes to SGLD required to read the restart data files in a backwardly compatible fashion.
Updated vulcan_rest and vulcan_prof to allow for an arbitrary number of ghost cell layers.
Fixed problem with vulcan_prof when splitting profiles.
Added option in vulcan_prof to allow a user-defined analytical profile to be specified (currently set-up for a temporal mixing layer).
Fixed problem with the use of "mixure" products in perf_plot3d when computing equilibrium chemistry-based efficiencies.
Forced the creation of therm.lib every time that perf_plot3d is executed to ensure changes made to therm.inp are taken into account.
Fixed various issues in perf_plot3d that appeared when the streamwise direction was not "x".
Fixed problem with initialization of ndim in perf_plot3d when 3-D grids are utilized with one k-plane.
Fixed problem with initialization of nk3d in grid_plot3d when the Fieldview flux option is chosen.
Removed hard-wired 3-D setting in the Gridgen glyph scripts that set VULCAN boundary conditions.
Fixed index issue when 2-D problems are considered in the boundary condition translator utilities (gridgent, gridprot, v2knmapt).
Fixed potential memory issue when translating boundary condition information using the old boundary condition format in v2knmapt.
Added the ability to handle ChemKin format thermodynamic and transport databases in ls_fit and mix_fit.
Added the ability to to specify mole fractions in mix_fit.
Fixed issue in ls_fit with uninitialized variables when fitting a complete database.
Fixed issue with non-standard x,y,z ordering of output in the grid_plot3d.
Fixed issue with the calculation of the "target dimension" computed by the SGLD utility (it was based on nodes instead of cells).
Added a new translator utility gpro2nmf to convert the GridPro connectivity file to a V2K neutral map file.
Added the ability to output Tecplot zonal data to separate files in time_merge.
Fixed various issues with the boundary layer property integration option in vulcan_rest.
Added an ideal vortex as an analytical profile creation option in vulcan_prof.
Added a laminar fully-developed laminar channel or pipe flow as an analytical profile creation opton in vulcan_prof.
Added the option to read 32 or 64 bit unformatted PLOT3D data files in perf_plot3d.
Added the ability to compute the pattern factor based on total temperature in perf_plot3d.
Added thrust potential measures (one based on expanding to a specified pressure and the other an expansion to a specified area) to perf_plot3d.
Added the adiabatic inlet kinetic energy efficiency measure to perf_plot3d.
Added the output (int_prop_tmp.inp) of the the input parameters used when executing perf_plot3d, which can be used as an input file for subsequent executions of this utility.
A POINTWISE plugin has been developed to allow the specification of VULCAN boundary conditions inside of POINTWISE. This plugin is not a simple translator, but is instead essentially a component for POINTWISE. This plugin is intended to eventually be a part of the POINTWISE software package, but the process of formally folding this plugin into POINTWISE has not been completed. At this point, if you have a need for it contact the developers and provide the version of POINTWISE that you have and whether you are using the 32 or 64 bit version. We can then compile the plugin on our end and make it available to you.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Heading||Return to manual home page|
|Tables||List of Tables|
|Figures||List of Figures|
|Chapter 1||How to obtain, install and run VULCAN and its utilities|
|Chapter 2||Input Description: General Control Data|
|Section 1||Parallel processing data|
|Section 2||Geometry type data|
|Section 3||Input control data|
|Section 4||Output control data|
|Section 5||Equation set data|
|Section 6||Reference frame data|
|Section 7||Gas and thermodynamic data|
|Section 8||Chemistry model data|
|Section 9||Transport model data|
|Section 10||Chemical species data|
|Section 11||Chemical reaction data|
|Section 12a||Reference condition data: calorically perfect gas|
|Section 12b||Reference condition data: thermally perfect gas|
|Section 13||Turbulence model data|
|Section 14||Hybrid RAS/LES model data|
|Section 15||Recycling/Rescaling data|
|Section 16||Turbulence-Chemistry model data|
|Section 17||Runge-Kutta scheme data|
|Section 18||Hybrid advection scheme data|
|Section 19||Boundary and cut control|
|Section 20||Block configuration control|
|Section 21||Region configuration control|
|Chapter 3||Input description for boundary conditions|
|Chapter 4||Input description for C(0) block interface (CUT) conditions|
|Chapter 5||Input description for non-C(0) block interface (PATCH) conditions|
|Chapter 6||Input description for laminar sub-blocks|
|Chapter 7||Input description for ignition sub-blocks|
|Chapter 8||Input description for time history sub-blocks|
|Chapter 9||Chemical reaction model input|
|Sample Database||Sample chemical kinetic model input|
|Chapter 10||Chemical species thermodynamic and transport model input|
|Sample Database||Sample VULCAN format species gas model database|
|Chapter 11||Computational domain decomposition|
|Chapter 12||Initialization of the flow in the computational domain|
|Chapter 13||Parallelization algorithm|
|Chapter 14||Input grid file format|
|Chapter 15||Profile file output format|
|Chapter 16||Recycling/Rescaling process description|
|Chapter 17||VTLS - Vulcan Top-Level (post-processing) Script|
|Table Number||List of Tables|
|Table I.||Sample input file|
|Table II.||Input grid file PLOT2D/PLOT3D options|
|Table III.||Boundary condition types|
|Table IV.||Required additional information for relevant boundary condition types|
|Table V.||Definition of domain decomposition terms|
|Table VI.||Sample input file for domain decomposition|
|Table VII.||Example of a block configuration input table|
|Table XIII.||A sample input file of an alternative domain decomposition|
|Table IX.||Another sample input file of an alternative domain decomposition|
|Table X.||Yet another sample input file of an alternative domain decomposition|
|Table XI.||Definition of initialization terms/methods|
|Table XII.||Sample input file for flow initialization|
|Figure Number||List of Figures|
|Figure 1.||Sample computational domain and grid|
|Figure 2.||Angle of attack reference frames|
|Figure 3.||Boundary condition types|
|Figure 4.||Two BLOCK grid|
|Figure 5.||BLOCK 1 boundary treatment|
|Figure 6.||BLOCK 2 boundary treatment|
|Figure 7.||Pressure contours for space marched 2-D flow|
|Figure 8.||Alternative domain decomposition using 3 blocks|
|Figure 9.||Sample computational domain for initialization|
|Figure 10.||Sample flow field initialization|
|Figure 11.||Boundary condition cell ordering and orientation|
|Figure 12.||Master-Slave communication pattern|
|Figure 13.||Grid layout for the flat plate boundary layer|
|Figure 14.||Inflow Block Assembly and Recycling Block Assembly for the flat plate boundary layer|
|Figure 15.||Grid layout for the channel flow|
|Figure 16.||Inflow Block Assembly and Recycling Block Assembly for the channel flow|
|TABLE OF CONTENTS||CLOSE MANUAL|